E-ISSN 2367-699X | ISSN 2367-7414
 

Review Article 


A Review of Incidence, Risk Factors, and Management of Chyle Leak Following Abdominal Surgery

Thomas B Russell, Andrei Tanase, Somaiah Aroori.

Abstract
Chyle leak (CL) is an uncommon complication of abdominal surgery; the true incidence is difficult to appreciate. Unlike other complications, CL is poorly described and current treatment options are largely not evidence-based. This article aims to review the incidence, aetiology and risk factors associated with CL following abdominal procedures and propose a management algorithm. We performed a search of multiple databases and identified studies on CL following abdominal procedures. The data was compiled and used to identify high-risk procedures and risk factors for CL.
Incidence was highly variable between studies and was highest following pancreatic resection and retroperitoneal lymph node dissection. No high-quality studies have calculated the incidence of CL following several commonly performed abdominal operations e.g. hepatectomy. Numerous studies identified a number of resected lymph nodes, a number of involved lymph nodes and retroperitoneal dissection as independent risk factors. Optimum management remains a source of debate. Most cases of CL are self-limiting and will resolve within 2-3 weeks following conservative measures alone. Severe cases can result in increased length of stay and have metabolic, immunologic, and economic implications. Following a diagnosis of CL, we advise starting patients on octreotide and commencing a low-fat medium-chain triglyceride-based diet. If this fails then total parenteral nutrition can be considered. Novel minimally invasive techniques and surgical options should be kept as a last resort for those with significant complications, or those who have failed a non-operative approach.

Key words: Chyle Leak, Chylous Ascites, Abdominal, Surgery, Resection, Management


 
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How to Cite this Article
Pubmed Style

Russell TB, Tanase A, Aroori S. A Review of Incidence, Risk Factors, and Management of Chyle Leak Following Abdominal Surgery. Int J Surg Med. 2021; 7(3): 5-15. doi:10.5455/ijsm.Chyle-Leak-abdominalsurgery


Web Style

Russell TB, Tanase A, Aroori S. A Review of Incidence, Risk Factors, and Management of Chyle Leak Following Abdominal Surgery. http://www.ejos.org/?mno=40742 [Access: August 03, 2021]. doi:10.5455/ijsm.Chyle-Leak-abdominalsurgery


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Russell TB, Tanase A, Aroori S. A Review of Incidence, Risk Factors, and Management of Chyle Leak Following Abdominal Surgery. Int J Surg Med. 2021; 7(3): 5-15. doi:10.5455/ijsm.Chyle-Leak-abdominalsurgery



Vancouver/ICMJE Style

Russell TB, Tanase A, Aroori S. A Review of Incidence, Risk Factors, and Management of Chyle Leak Following Abdominal Surgery. Int J Surg Med. (2021), [cited August 03, 2021]; 7(3): 5-15. doi:10.5455/ijsm.Chyle-Leak-abdominalsurgery



Harvard Style

Russell, T. B., Tanase, . A. & Aroori, . S. (2021) A Review of Incidence, Risk Factors, and Management of Chyle Leak Following Abdominal Surgery. Int J Surg Med, 7 (3), 5-15. doi:10.5455/ijsm.Chyle-Leak-abdominalsurgery



Turabian Style

Russell, Thomas B, Andrei Tanase, and Somaiah Aroori. 2021. A Review of Incidence, Risk Factors, and Management of Chyle Leak Following Abdominal Surgery. International Journal of Surgery and Medicine, 7 (3), 5-15. doi:10.5455/ijsm.Chyle-Leak-abdominalsurgery



Chicago Style

Russell, Thomas B, Andrei Tanase, and Somaiah Aroori. "A Review of Incidence, Risk Factors, and Management of Chyle Leak Following Abdominal Surgery." International Journal of Surgery and Medicine 7 (2021), 5-15. doi:10.5455/ijsm.Chyle-Leak-abdominalsurgery



MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

Russell, Thomas B, Andrei Tanase, and Somaiah Aroori. "A Review of Incidence, Risk Factors, and Management of Chyle Leak Following Abdominal Surgery." International Journal of Surgery and Medicine 7.3 (2021), 5-15. Print. doi:10.5455/ijsm.Chyle-Leak-abdominalsurgery



APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Russell, T. B., Tanase, . A. & Aroori, . S. (2021) A Review of Incidence, Risk Factors, and Management of Chyle Leak Following Abdominal Surgery. International Journal of Surgery and Medicine, 7 (3), 5-15. doi:10.5455/ijsm.Chyle-Leak-abdominalsurgery